Thank you for submitting a question.
The answer begins not with the process or place, but with your status.
If you are not Jewish, or are affiliated in any way with another faith or religion, you cannot be ordained as a rabbi, period.
If you are Jewish by birth, or have undergone a formal conversion process led by a recognized rabbi, then you may be eligible to begin the effort to undertake the process.
Only at this point would your gender enter into the matter. The Orthodox movement does not permit the ordination of women as rabbis (though recently one Orthodox rabbi ordained a woman with a different title than rabbi; it is not certain that this situation will stand, nor is it clear that it will be accepted in general in the Orthodox world). For purposes of this answer, we will exclude the Orthodox movement as a possibility for you.
The next step is that you would apply to the appropriate seminary as a graduate student, including your GRE scores, transcripts, essays, and other information. You might be asked to take a psychological evaluation at this point. If you have the appropriate credentials, you would be granted an interview with the admissions committee. Your application would then be evaluated, and a decision made. Assuming you were accepted, you then attend seminary for the next five or six years.
There are seminaries for the Reform movement in New York, Cincinatti, Los Angeles, and Israel; for the Conservative movement in New York, Los Angeles, and Israel; for the Reconstructionist movement in Philadelphia. In all of these programs, all students are required (in general) to spend a year studying in Israel.
Upon completion of the academic requirements, the faculty of the institution would determine the fitness of the candidate to serve as a rabbi. If they felt that a person was not suitable, they would grant them a degree, but not ordain that person. Ordination coincides with graduation for most candidates.
In some instances, more often in Europe than the US, there was a process of ordination following apprenticeship. This model is followed somewhat today within the Jewish Renewal movement. It requires studying, working, and apprenticing with an ordained rabbi who serves as your primary teacher and mentor, and then as your sponsor, presenting you when ready to the rabbinic court that tests you and determines your knowledge, readiness, and suitability to be ordained.
There are other seminaries that have been developed in the last few years. These are not associated with a particular movement, but there is no guarantee that any particular movement will recognize their authority to grant ordination or to train rabbis.
Specific details may differ, but this is a general outline.
I hope that this is helpful.
Rabbi Joe Blair
Answered by: Rabbi Joseph Blair